Leaders are responsible for establishing and sustaining the culture of an institution. They are accountable for monitoring the institution’s cultural rhythm. With strong leadership, that rhythm should vacillate only slightly, rather like the variations on a barometer as compared to those on a thermometer. The rhythm must be stable or else turbulence sets in, with associated disruptions and hazards. Safety degrades under such circumstances and patients and staff can be harmed.
A key strategy for success is for leaders to recognize vulnerabilities that may affect staff performance and to address them specifically. This is accomplished by sustaining a culture where just treatment, e.g., the Just Culture, is the norm. The Just Culture consists of two dimensions, related but also unique in character.